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Itō Hirobumi

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Itō Hirobumi
伊藤 博文
Itō Hirobumi in 1909
President of the Privy Council
In office
14 June – 26 October 1909
Preceded byYamagata Aritomo
Succeeded byYamagata Aritomo
In office
13 July 1903 – 21 December 1905
Preceded bySaionji Kinmochi
Succeeded byYamagata Aritomo
In office
1 June 1891 – 8 August 1892
Preceded byOki Takato
Succeeded byOki Takato
In office
30 April 1888 – 30 October 1889
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byOki Takato
Prime Minister of Japan
In office
19 October 1900 – 10 May 1901
Preceded byYamagata Aritomo
Succeeded bySaionji Kinmochi (Acting)
In office
12 January 1898 – 30 June 1898
Preceded byMatsukata Masayoshi
Succeeded byŌkuma Shigenobu
In office
8 August 1892 – 31 August 1896
Preceded byMatsukata Masayoshi
Succeeded byKuroda Kiyotaka (Acting)
In office
22 December 1885 – 30 April 1888
Preceded byPosition established
Tokugawa Yoshinobu (as Shōgun)
Succeeded byKuroda Kiyotaka
Additional positions
President of the House of Peers
In office
24 October 1890 – 20 July 1891
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byHachisuka Mochiaki
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan
In office
September 1887 – February 1888
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded byInoue Kaoru
Succeeded byŌkuma Shigenobu
Personal details
Hayashi Risuke

(1841-10-16)16 October 1841
Tsukari, Suō, Tokugawa shogunate (present-day Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan)
Died26 October 1909(1909-10-26) (aged 68)
Harbin, Heilongjiang, Qing dynasty
Manner of deathAssassination by gunshot
Resting placeHirobumi Itō Cemetery, Tokyo, Japan
Political partyIndependent (Before 1900)
Constitutional Association of Political Friendship (1900–1909)
SpouseItō Umeko (1848–1924)
Children3 sons, 2 daughters
Alma materUniversity College London[1]

Prince Itō Hirobumi (伊藤 博文, 16 October 1841 – 26 October 1909) was a Japanese politician and statesman who served as the first Prime Minister of Japan. He was also a leading member of the genrō, a group of senior statesmen that dictated Japanese policy during the Meiji era. He was born as Hayashi Risuke, also known as Hirofumi, Hakubun, and briefly during his youth as Itō Shunsuke.

A London-educated samurai of the Chōshū Domain and a central figure in the Meiji Restoration, Itō Hirobumi chaired the bureau which drafted the Constitution for the newly formed Empire of Japan. Looking to the West for inspiration, Itō rejected the United States Constitution as too liberal and the Spanish Restoration as too despotic. Instead, he drew on British and German models, particularly the Prussian Constitution of 1850. Dissatisfied with Christianity's pervasiveness in European legal precedent, he replaced such religious references with those rooted in the more traditionally Japanese concept of a kokutai or "national polity" which hence became the constitutional justification for imperial authority.

During the 1880s, Itō emerged as the leading figure among the Meiji oligarchy.[2][3][4] By 1885, he became the first Prime Minister of Japan, a position he went on to hold four times (thereby making his tenure one of the longest in Japanese history). Even out of office as the nation's head of government, he continued to wield vast influence over Japan's policies as a permanent imperial adviser, or genkun, and the President of the Emperor's Privy Council. A staunch monarchist, Itō favored a large, all-powerful bureaucracy that answered solely to the Emperor and opposed the formation of political parties. His third term as prime minister was ended in 1898 by the opposition's consolidation into the Kenseitō party, prompting him to found the Rikken Seiyūkai party to counter its rise. In 1901, he resigned his fourth and final ministry upon tiring of party politics.

On the world stage, Itō presided over an ambitious foreign policy. He strengthened diplomatic ties with the Western powers including Germany, the United States and especially the United Kingdom. In Asia, he oversaw the First Sino-Japanese War and negotiated the surrender of China's ruling Qing dynasty on terms aggressively favourable to Japan, including the annexation of Taiwan and the release of Korea from the Chinese Imperial tribute system. While expanding his country's claims in Asia, Itō sought to avoid conflict with the Russian Empire through the policy of Man-Kan kōkan – the proposed surrender of Manchuria to Russia's sphere of influence in exchange for recognition of Japanese hegemony in Korea. However, in a diplomatic visit to Saint Petersburg in November 1901, Itō found Russian authorities completely unreceptive to such terms. Consequently, Japan's incumbent prime minister, Katsura Tarō, elected to abandon the pursuit of Man-Kan kōkan, which resulted in an escalation of tensions culminating in the Russo-Japanese War.

After Japanese forces emerged victorious over Russia, the ensuing Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 made Itō the first Japanese Resident-General of Korea. He consented to the total annexation of Korea in response to pressure from the increasingly powerful Imperial Army. Shortly thereafter, he resigned as Resident-General in 1909 and assumed office once again as President of the Imperial Privy Council. Four months later, Itō was assassinated by Korean-independence activist and nationalist An Jung-geun in Harbin, Manchuria.[5][6] The annexation process was formalised by another treaty in 1910 which brought Korea under Japanese rule, following year after Itō's death. Through his daughter Ikuko, Itō was the father-in-law of politician, intellectual and author Suematsu Kenchō.


Early years[edit]

Itō Hirobumi as a samurai in his youth

Hayashi Risuke (林利助) was born on 16 October 1841, in Tsukari, Kumage, Suō Province (present-day Hikari, Yamaguchi Prefecture), the eldest son of farmer Hayashi Jūzō and his wife Kotoko. After his father went bankrupt and left for Hagi, Yamaguchi in 1846, he went to live at his mother's parental home. In 1849, Jūzō invited the family to Hagi and the family reunited. There Risuke entered Kubo Gorō Saemon's school. Because the family was poor, when Risuke was 12, Jūzō was adopted by samurai servant Mizui Buhē. In 1854, Mizui Buhē was adopted by samurai foot soldier (ashigaru) Itō Yaemon from Aihata, Saba. Mizui Buhē was renamed Itō Naoemon, Jūzō took the name Itō Jūzō, and Hayashi Risuke was renamed Itō Shunsuke at first, then Itō Hirobumi. These adoptions allowed both Hirobumi and his father Jūzō to rise to the samurai class and become ashigaru.[7] Jūzō was the biological son of Hayashi Sukezaemon (林助左衛門), a 5th generation descendant of Hayashi Nobuyoshi (林信吉) who was a member of the Hayashi clan of Owari (尾張林氏).

He was a student of Yoshida Shōin at the Shōka Sonjuku and later joined the Sonnō jōi movement ("to revere the Emperor and expel the barbarians"), together with Katsura Kogorō. Active in the movement, he took part in an incendiary attack of the British legation on 31 January 1863 led by Takasugi Shinsaku, and in the company of Yamao Yōzō attacked and mortally wounded the head of the Wagakukōdansho institute on 2 February 1863, believing a false report that the institute was looking into ways of toppling the Emperor.[8] Itō was chosen as one of the Chōshū Five who studied at University College London in 1863, and the experience in Great Britain eventually convinced him Japan needed to adopt Western ways.

In 1864, Itō returned to Japan with fellow student Inoue Kaoru to attempt to warn Chōshū Domain against going to war with the foreign powers (the Bombardment of Shimonoseki) over the right of passage through the Straits of Shimonoseki. At that time, he met Ernest Satow for the first time, later a lifelong friend.

Political career[edit]

Rise to power[edit]

Photo of Itō (second from right, standing) alongside other members of the Iwakura mission

After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, Itō was appointed governor of Hyōgo Prefecture, junior councilor for Foreign Affairs, and sent to the United States in 1870 to study Western currency systems. Returning to Japan in 1871, he established Japan's taxation system. With the advice of Edmund Morel, a chief engineer of the railway department, Itō endeavored to found the Public Works together with Yamao Yozo. Later that year, he was sent on the Iwakura Mission around the world as vice-envoy extraordinary, during which he won the confidence of Ōkubo Toshimichi, one of the leaders of the Meiji government.[9]

In 1873, Itō was made a full councilor, Minister of Public Works, and in 1875 chairman of the first Assembly of Prefectural Governors. He participated in the Osaka Conference of 1875. After Ōkubo's assassination, he took over the post of Home Minister and secured a central position in the Meiji government. By 1881, he successfully pushed for the resignation of Ōkuma Shigenobu, thereby allowing him to emerge as the de facto leader of the Meiji government.[10][11]

Itō went to Europe in 1882 to study the constitutions of those countries, spending nearly 18 months away from Japan. While working on a constitution for Japan, he also wrote the first Imperial Household Law and established the Japanese peerage system (kazoku) in 1884.

In 1885, he negotiated the Convention of Tientsin with Li Hongzhang, normalizing Japan's diplomatic relations with Qing-dynasty China. In the same year, In 1885, Itō established a cabinet system of government based on European ideas, replacing the Daijō-kan as the nation's main policy-making organization.

As Prime Minister[edit]

Itō Hirobumi as prime minister (c. 1880s)

On 22 December 1885, Itō became the first Prime Minister of Japan, as the head of First Itō Cabinet. The first Itō Cabinet endeavored to establish institutions preparatory to the promulgation of the Constitution, and in February 1886 established a system of government for each ministry, and in March, the Imperial University (now the University of Tokyo) was established, and in March of the following year, a national academic association was established and supported it. On the other hand, Inoue Kaoru was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs and was given responsibility for amending the treaty, but the amendment proposed by Inoue included the appointment of foreign judges, leading to the problem of appointing private officials. foreign legislation, leading to In July 1887, a revision meeting aimed at foreign countries was cancelled, and Inoue Kaoru resigned in September, leading to defeat. In June of the same year, he began studying the draft constitution with Itō Miyoji, Inoue Tsuyoshi, Kaneko Kentaro and others in Tsushima. On 30 April 1888, Itō resigned as prime minister, but headed the new Privy Council to maintain power behind-the-scenes. In 1889, he also became the first genrō. The Meiji Constitution was promulgated in February 1889. He had added to it the references to the kokutai or "national polity" as the justification of the emperor's authority through his divine descent and the unbroken line of emperors, and the unique relationship between subject and sovereign.[12] This stemmed from his rejection of some European notions as unfit for Japan, as they stemmed from European constitutional practice and Christianity.[12]

He remained a powerful force while Kuroda Kiyotaka and Yamagata Aritomo, his political nemeses,[according to whom?] were prime ministers.

During Itō's second term as prime minister (8 August 1892 – 31 August 1896), he supported the First Sino-Japanese War and negotiated the Treaty of Shimonoseki in March 1895, made Taiwan a Japanese colony with his ailing foreign minister Mutsu Munemitsu. In the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation of 1894, he succeeded in removing some of the onerous unequal treaty clauses that had plagued Japanese foreign relations since the start of the Meiji era.

During Itō's third term as prime minister (12 January – 30 June 1898), he was forced to contend with the rise of political parties. Both the Liberal Party and the Shimpotō opposed his proposed new land taxes, and in retaliation, Itō dissolved the lower house of the Imperial Diet and called for general election. As a result, both parties merged into the Kenseitō, won a majority of the seats, and forced Itō to resign. This lesson taught Itō the need for a pro-government political party, so he organized the Rikken Seiyūkai (Constitutional Association of Political Friendship) in 1900. Itō's womanizing was a popular theme in editorial cartoons and in parodies by contemporary comedians, and was used by his political enemies in their campaign against him.[citation needed]

Itō returned to office as prime minister for a fourth term from 19 October 1900, to 10 May 1901, this time facing political opposition from the House of Peers. Weary of political back-stabbing, he resigned in 1901, but remained as head of the Privy Council as the premiership alternated between Saionji Kinmochi and Katsura Tarō.

Itō in the later years of his political career

Toward the end of August 1901, Itō announced his intention of visiting the United States to recuperate. This turned into a long journey in the course of which he visited the major cities of the United States and Europe. He set off from Yokohama on 18 September, traveled through the U.S. to New York City, and received an honorary doctorate (LL.D.) from Yale University in late October.[13] He then sailed to Boulogne, reaching Paris on 4 November. On 25 November, he reached Saint Petersburg, having been asked by the new prime minister, Katsura Tarō, to sound out the Russians, entirely unofficially, on their intentions in the Far East. Japan hoped to achieve what it called Man-Kan kōkan, the exchange of a free hand for Russia in Manchuria for a free hand for Japan in Korea, but Russia, feeling greatly superior to Japan and unwilling to give up the use of Korean ports for its navy, was in no mood to compromise. Foreign minister Vladimir Lamsdorf "thought that time was on the side of his country because of the [Trans-Siberian] railway and there was no need to make concessions to the Japanese".[14] Itō left empty-handed for Berlin (where he received honors from Kaiser Wilhelm), Brussels, and London. Meanwhile, Katsura had decided that Man-Kan kōkan was no longer desirable for Japan, which should not renounce activity in Manchuria.[citation needed] In Britain, Itō met with Lord Lansdowne, which helped lay the groundwork for the Anglo-Japanese Alliance announced early the following year. The failure of his mission to Russia was "one of the most important events in the run-up to the Russo-Japanese War".[15]

While Prime Minister, Itō invited Professor George Trumbull Ladd of Yale University to serve as a diplomatic adviser to promote mutual understanding between Japan and the United States. Lectures delivered by Ladd in Japan revolutionized its educational methods; he was the first foreigner to receive the Third Class honor (conferred by the Emperor in 1899) and the Second Class honor (in 1907) in the Orders of the Rising Sun. He later wrote a book on his personal experiences in Korea and with Resident-General Itō.[16][17][18] When Ladd died, half his ashes were buried in a Buddhist temple in Tokyo and a monument was erected to him.[17][19]

As Resident-General of Korea[edit]

Prince Itō and the Crown Prince of Korea Yi Un

On 9 November 1905, following the Russo-Japanese War, Itō arrived in Hanseong and gave a letter from the Emperor of Japan to Gojong, Emperor of Korea, asking him to sign the Japan–Korea Protectorate Treaty, which would make Korea a Japanese protectorate. On 15 November 1905, he ordered Japanese troops to encircle the Korean imperial palace.

On 17 November 1905, Itō and Japanese Field Marshal Hasegawa Yoshimichi entered the Jungmyeongjeon Hall, a Russian-designed building that was once part of Deoksu Palace, to persuade Gojong to approve the treaty, but the Emperor refused. Itō then pressured the Emperor's ministers with the implied, and later stated, threat of bodily harm, to sign the treaty.[20] Five ministers signed an agreement that had been prepared by Itō in the Jungmyeongjeon. The agreement gave Imperial Japan complete responsibility for Korea's foreign affairs,[21] and placed all trade through Korean ports under Imperial Japanese supervision.

After the treaty had been signed, Itō became the first Resident-General of Korea on 21 December 1905. In 1907, he urged Emperor Gojong to abdicate in favor of his son Sunjong and secured the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907, thereby giving Japan authority to dictate Korea's internal affairs.

While Itō was firmly against Korea falling into China or Russia's sphere of influence, he also opposed its annexation, advocating instead that the territory should be treated as a protectorate. When the cabinet voted in favor of annexing Korea, he proposed that the process be delayed in the hopes that the decision could eventually be reversed.[22] However, Itō ultimately changed his mind and approved plans to have the region annexed on 10 April 1909. Despite changing his position, he was forced to resign on 14 June 1909 by the Imperial Japanese Army (one of the foremost advocates for Korea's annexation).[23] His assassination is believed to have accelerated the path to the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty.[24]


Last image of Itō arriving at Harbin Station shortly before his assassination on 26 October 1909

Itō arrived at the Harbin railway station on 26 October 1909 for a meeting with Vladimir Kokovtsov, a Russian representative in Manchuria. There An Jung-geun, a Korean nationalist[24] and independence activist,[25][26] fired six shots, three of which hit Itō in the chest. He died shortly thereafter. His body was returned to Japan on the Imperial Japanese Navy cruiser Akitsushima, and he was accorded a state funeral on 4 November 1909 at Hibiya Park.[27] An Jung-geun later listed "15 reasons why Itō should be killed" at his trial.[28][29] On 14 February 1910, Ahn was sentenced to death by hanging, Yu to two years in prison, and Cao and Liu to one year and six months in prison for murder and crimes against the Imperial Japanese Government.


In Japan[edit]

A Series C 1,000 yen note of Japan, with a portrait of Itō Hirobumi
  • A portrait of Itō Hirobumi was on the obverse of the Series C 1,000 yen note from 1963 until a new series was issued in 1984.
  • The publishing company Hakubunkan takes its name from Hakubun, an alternate pronunciation of Itō's given name.

Itō Hirobumi former residence in Hagi[edit]

Former residence of Itō Hirobumi in Hagi

The house where Itō lived from age 14 in Hagi after his father was adopted by Itō Naoemon still exists, and is preserved as a museum. It is a one-story house with a thatched roof and a gabled roof, with a total floor area of 29 tsubo and is located 150 meters south of the Shōkasonjuku Academy. The adjacent villa is a portion of a house built by Itō in 1907 in Oimura, Shimoebara-gun, Tokyo (currently Shinagawa, Tokyo). It was a large Western-style mansion, of which three structures, a part of the entrance, a large hall, and a detached room, were transported Hagi. The large hall has a mirrored ceiling and its wooden paneling uses 1000-year old cedar trees from Yoshino.[30] The buildings were collectively designated a National Historic Site in 1932.[31]

In Korea[edit]

The Annals of Sunjong record that Gojong held a positive view of Itō's governorship. In an entry for 28 October 1909, almost three years after being forced to abdicate his throne, the former emperor praised Itō, who had died two days earlier, for his efforts to develop Japanese civilization in Korea. However, the integrity of Joseon silloks dated after the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 is considered dubious by Korean scholars due to the influence exerted over record-keeping by the Japanese.

Itō has been portrayed several times in Korean cinema. His assassination was the subject of North Korea's An Jung-gun Shoots Itō Hirobumi in 1979 and South Korea's Thomas Ahn Joong Keun in 2004; both films made his assassin An Jung-geun the protagonist. The 1973 South Korean film Femme Fatale: Bae Jeong-ja is a biopic of Itō's alleged adopted Korean daughter Bae Jeong-ja (1870–1952).

Itō argued the Pan-Asian view that if East Asians did not co-operate closely with one another, Japan, Korea and China would all fall victim to Western imperialism. Initially, Gojong and the Joseon government shared that belief and agreed to collaborate with the Japanese military.[32] Korean intellectuals had predicted that the victor of the Russo-Japanese War would assume hegemony over their peninsula, and as an Asian power, Japan enjoyed greater public support in Korea than Russia. However, policies such as land confiscation and the drafting of forced labor turned popular opinion against the Japanese, a trend exacerbated by the arrest or execution of those who resisted.[32] An Jung-geun was also a proponent of what was later called Pan-Asianism. He believed in a union of the three East Asian nations to repel Western imperialism and restore peace in the region.

Itō memorial temple built[edit]

On 26 October 1932, the Japanese unveiled in Seoul the Hakubun-ji 博文寺 Buddhist Temple dedicated to Prince Itō. Full official name "Prince Itō Memorial Temple (伊藤公爵祈念寺院)". Situated in then Susumu Tadashidan Park on the north slope of Namsan, which after liberation became Jangchungdan Park 장충단 공원. From October 1945, the main hall served as student home, ca. 1960 replaced by a guest house of the Park Chung-Hee administration, then reconstructed and again a student guest house. In 1979 it was incorporated into the grounds of the Shilla Hotel then opened. Several other parts of the temple are still at the site.


  • Hayashi family
 ∴Hayashi Awajinokami
 ┃    ┃    ┃Hayasi Magoemon ┃     ┃     ┃    ┃     ┃
Michimoto Michiyo Michisige     Michiyoshi Michisada Michikata Michinaga Michisue
           ┃Hayasi Magosaburō
           ┃Hayasi Magoemon
 ┃Hayasi Magoemon ┃     ┃    ┃
Nobuaki      Sakuzaemon Sojyurō  Matazaemon
 ┃                    ┃
 ┃                    ┃
 ┃Hayasi Hanroku            ┃
Nobuhisa                 Genzō
 ┃                    ┃
 ┣━━━━━━━━━┓              ┃
 ┃     ┃              ┃
Sōzaemon  Heijihyōe          Yoichiemon
       ┃              ┃
 ┏━━━━━━━━━┻━━━━━━┓      ┏━━━━━┫
 ┃Hayasi Hanroku ┃      ┃   ┃
Rihachirō     Riemon    Masuzō Sukezaemon
                      ┃adopted son of Hayasi Rihachirō
      ┃Itō ┃Hayasi Shinbei's wife ┃Morita Naoyoshi's wife
     Jyuzō woman          woman
 ┃Itō   ┃Kida  ┃Itō   ┃   ┃
Hirokuni Humiyoshi Shinichi woman woman
 ┃Itō   ┃Shimizu ┃Itō     ┃Itō  ┃Itō   ┃Itō   ┃Itō   ┃Itō    ┃Itō   ┃Itō    ┃   ┃  ┃
Hirotada  Hiroharu Hiromichi  Hiroya Hirotada Hiroomi Hironori Hirotsune Hirotaka Hirohide woman woman woman
 ┃Itō   ┃   ┃  ┃   ┃  ┃
Hiromasa  woman woman woman woman woman
 ┃Itō   ┃
Tomoaki  woman
  • Itō family
Itō Yaemon
Itō Naoemon (Mizui Buhei)Yaemon's adopted son
Itō Jyuzō (Hayashi Jyuzo)Naoemon's adopted son
Itō Hirobumi (Hayashi Risuke)


From the Japanese Wikipedia article



  • Count (7 July 1884)
  • Marquess (5 August 1895)
  • Prince (21 September 1907)


Court ranks[edit]

  • Fifth rank, junior grade (1868)
  • Fifth rank (1869)
  • Fourth rank (1870)
  • Senior fourth rank (18 February 1874)
  • Third rank (27 December 1884)
  • Second rank (19 October 1886)
  • Senior second rank (20 December 1895)
  • Junior First Rank (26 October 1909; posthumous)


Popular culture[edit]

Year Title Portrayed by
1980 The Battle of Port Arthur Hisaya Morishige
2001–02 Empress Myeongseong Yoon Joo-sang
2009–11 Clouds Above the Slope Gō Katō
2010 Ryōmaden Hiroyuki Onoue
2014 Rurouni Kenshin: The Legend Ends Yukiyoshi Ozawa
2015 Burning Flower Hitori Gekidan
2018 Segodon Kenta Hamano
2018 Mr. Sunshine Kim In-woo [ko]
2022 Hero Kim Seung-rak [ko]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Famous Alumni". UCL. 11 January 2018.
  2. ^ Craig, Albert M. (14 July 2014) [1st pub. 1986]. "Chapter 2: The Central Government". In Jansen, Marius B.; Rozman, Gilbert (eds.). Japan in Transition: From Tokugawa to Meiji. Princeton University Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0691604848. By 1878 Ōkubo, Kido, and Saigō, the triumvirate of the Restoration, were all dead. There followed a three-year interim during which it was unclear who would take their place. During this time, new problems emerged: intractable inflation, budget controversies, disagreement over foreign borrowing, a scandal in Hokkaido, and increasingly importunate party demands for constitutional government. Each policy issue became entangled in a power struggle of which the principals were Ōkuma and Itō. Ōkuma lost and was expelled from the government along with his followers...¶Itō's victory was the affirmation of Sat-Chō rule against a Saga outsider. Itō never quite became an Ōkubo but he did assume the key role within the collective leadership of Japan during the 1880s.
  3. ^ Beasley, W.G. (1988). "Chapter 10: Meiji Political Institutions". In Jansen, Marius B. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. V:The Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 657. ISBN 0-521-22356-3. Now that Ōkubo was dead and Iwakura was getting old, the contest for overall leadership seemed to lie between Itō and Ōkuma, which gave the latter's views a particular importance. He did not submit them until March 1881. They then proved to be a great deal more radical than any of his colleagues had expected, not least in recommending that a parliament be established almost immediately, so that elections could be held in 1882 and the first session convoked in 1883...Ōkuma envisaged a constitution on the British model, in which power would depend on rivalry among political parties and the highest office would go to the man who commanded a parliamentary majority...Implicit in this was a challenge to the Satsuma and Chōshū domination of the Meiji government. Itō at once took it up, threatening to resign if anything like Ōkuma's proposals were accepted. This enabled him to isolate Ōkuma and force him out of the council later in the year.
  4. ^ Perez, Louis G. (8 January 2013). "Itō Hirobumi". In Perez, Louis G. (ed.). Japan at War:An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 149. ISBN 9781598847420. Retrieved 11 September 2022. In 1878, Itō became Minister of Home Affairs. He and Ōkuma subsequently became embroiled over the adoption of a constitutional form of government. Itō had Ōkuma ousted from office and assumed primary leadership in the Meiji government...
  5. ^ "Ahn Jung-geun Regarded as Hero in China". The Korea Times. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 15 August 2018. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  6. ^ Dudden, Alexis (2005). Japan's Colonization of Korea: Discourse and Power. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2829-1.
  7. ^ Itō, Yukio; 伊藤之雄 (2009). Itō Hirobumi : kindai Nihon o tsukutta otoko. 之雄 伊藤. Kōdansha. pp. 22–25. ISBN 978-4-06-215909-8. OCLC 466068077.
  8. ^ Takii, Kazuhiro (2014). Itō Hirobumi - Japan's First Prime Minister and Father of the Meiji Constitution. trans. Takeshi Manabu. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415838863.
  9. ^ "Itō Hirobumi". Britannica. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  10. ^ Perez, Louis G. (8 January 2013). "Itō Hirobumi". In Perez, Louis G. (ed.). Japan at War:An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 149. ISBN 9781598847420. Retrieved 11 September 2022.
  11. ^ Grunden, Walter E. (8 January 2013). "Ōkuma Shigenobu". In Perez, Louis G. (ed.). Japan at War:An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 295. ISBN 9781598847420. Retrieved 16 April 2023. In 1878, Ōkuma was placed in charge of the bureau for land tax revision, where he attempted to enforce a series of unsuccessful programs geared toward financial retrenchment. Despite economic setbacks, his public popularity grew because he favored the immediate adoption of a British-style constitution and parliamentary government. Consequently, Ōkuma found himself the chief political rival and competitor of Itō Hirobumi, who championed the Prussian-style constitutional monarchy. In 1881, as the popular rights movement was gaining momentum, Ōkuma publicly advocated the immediate establishment of a national assembly. That stand placed him in direct opposition to Itō, and as a result, he was forced out of office in 1881.
  12. ^ a b W. G. Beasley,The Rise of Modern Japan, pp. 79–80 ISBN 0-312-04077-6
  13. ^ "United States". The Times. No. 36594. 24 October 1901. p. 3.
  14. ^ Ian Nish, The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War (Longman, 1985; ISBN 0582491142), p. 118.
  15. ^ Nish, The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War, p. 116.
  16. ^ Topics of the Week: "George Trumbull Ladd", The New York Times. 22 February 1908.
  17. ^ a b "Business: Japanese Strip", Time. 8 May 1939.
  18. ^ "American Honored by the Japanese", The New York Times. 22 October 1899.
  19. ^ "Great Head Temple Sôjiji". 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  20. ^ McKenzie, F.A. (1920). Korea's Fight for Freedom. Fleming H. Revell Company.
  21. ^ United States. Dept. of State. (1919). Catalogue of treaties: 1814–1918, p. 273, at Google Books
  22. ^ Umino, Fukuju (2004). Hirobumi Itō and Korean Annexation (Itō hirobumi to kankoku heigou) (in Japanese). Aoki Shoten. ISBN 978-4-250-20414-2.
  23. ^ Ogawara, Hiroyuki (2010). 伊藤博文の韓国併合構想と朝鮮社会 (in Japanese). 岩波書店. ISBN 978-4000221795.
  24. ^ a b Keene, Donald (2002). Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852–1912. Columbia University Press. pp. 662–667. ISBN 0-231-12340-X.
  25. ^ "What Defines a Hero?". Japan Society. Archived from the original on 4 October 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
  26. ^ "안중근". terms.naver.com.
  27. ^ Nakamura, Kaju (2010) [1910]. Prince Ito – The Man and Statesman – A Brief History of His Life. Lulu Press (reprint). ISBN 978-1445571423.
  28. ^ "The Harbin Tragedy". The Straits Times. 2 December 1909. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  29. ^ "Why Did Ahn Jung-geun Kill Hirobumi Ito?". The Korea Times. 24 August 2009.
  30. ^ Isomura, Yukio; Sakai, Hideya (2012). (国指定史跡事典) National Historic Site Encyclopedia. 学生社. ISBN 978-4311750403.(in Japanese)
  31. ^ "伊藤博文旧宅" (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  32. ^ a b Lee Jeong-sik (이정식) (May 2001). 긴급대특집, 일본 역사교과서 왜곡파문 [Special report on Japan's history textbook issue.]. New DongA (in Korean). Retrieved 1 May 2012. ... initially many Koreans supported Japanese against Russians, and helped Japanese military. ... Many intellectuals had predicted that whoever wins the Russo-Japanese War, Joseon would be controlled by a victor. Still, they had hoped for the Asian power's victory. .... On 14 April 1904, Japan demanded unrestricted fishing rights all across Korean peninsular. On 28 June, Japan asked for the right to use every unclaimed land in Korea. Many Japanese gangsters had beaten Korean citizens in numerous occasions. ... —1904, U.S. diplomatic cable by Horace Allen, then U.S. representative in Korea. [...러·일전쟁 때 많은 조선인이 일본측에 동조했고, 일본군을 도왔다... 많은 지식인이 전쟁이 끝난 후에 조선은 승자에게 굴(屈)하고 주권을 상실할 것이라 예측했음에도, 러시아보다는 '동족(同族)'인 일본이 승리하기를 바랐다. ... (1) 1904년 4월14일. 일본은 조선반도 전역에서 거의 무제한적인 어업권을 요구했다. (2) 6월28일. 그들은 지금 조선 내 모든 황무지를 점거하고 사용할 수 있는 권리를 요구했다. (3) 많은 수의 일본인 불량배 노동자들이 조선 사람들을 괴롭히고 있다. ...1904 년 주한미국공사 호레스 앨런의 보고서]
  33. ^ "Latest intelligence – Germany". The Times. No. 36639. London. 16 December 1901. p. 6.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i Clark, Samuel (2016). "Status Consequences of State Honours". Distributing Status: The Evolution of State Honours in Western Europe. Canada: McGill-Queens University Press. p. 322. doi:10.1515/9780773598560. ISBN 9780773598577. JSTOR j.ctt1c99bzh. OCLC 947837811. Retrieved 14 May 2024.
  35. ^ "Latest intelligence – Russia and Japan". The Times. No. 36626. London. 30 November 1901. p. 7.
  36. ^ a b c JAPAN, 独立行政法人国立公文書館 | NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF. "枢密院文書・枢密院高等官転免履歴書 明治ノ二". 国立公文書館 デジタルアーカイブ.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  37. ^ "No. 27397". The London Gazette. 14 January 1902. p. 295.
  38. ^ "Court circular". The Times. No. 36667. London. 17 January 1902. p. 8.


Further reading[edit]

  • Edward, I. "Japan's Decision to Annex Taiwan: A Study of Itō-Mutsu Diplomacy, 1894–95". Journal of Asian Studies 37#1 (1977): 61–72.
  • Hamada Kengi (1936). Prince Ito. Tokyo: Sanseido Co.
  • Johnston, John T.M. (1917). World Patriots. New York: World Patriots Co.
  • Kusunoki Sei'ichirō (1991). Nihon shi omoshiro suiri: Nazo no satsujin jiken wo oe. Tokyo: Futami bunko.
  • Ladd, George T. (1908). In Korea with Marquis Ito
  • Nakamura Kaju (1910). [https://archive.org/details/princeitomanand00nakagoog Prince Ito: The Man and the Statesman: A Brief History of His Life. New York: Japanese-American commercial weekly and Anraku Pub. Co.
  • Palmer, Frederick (1901). "Marquis Ito: The Great Man of Japan". Scribner’s Magazine 30(5), 613–621.

External links[edit]

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